Electrical shocks act like vaccines to guard crops from viruses


agriculture: The expansion of crops, animals or fungi for human wants, together with meals, gasoline, chemical substances and medication.

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aspirin: A standard non-prescription drug, also referred to as acetylsalicylic acid. For greater than a century, it has been broadly used to deal with complications, joint ache, muscle ache, toothaches and extra. It additionally reduces fevers and irritation. Historic papyrus texts point out that so long as 5,000 years in the past, the Sumerians and Egyptians had been utilizing willow bark (the supply of aspirin’s energetic ingredient) to deal with aches and pains.

chemical: A substance shaped from two or extra atoms that unite (bond) in a set proportion and construction. For instance, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to at least one oxygen atom. Its chemical method is H2O.

compound: (typically used as a synonym for chemical) A compound is a substance shaped when two or extra chemical parts unite (bond) in mounted proportions.

copper: A metallic chemical aspect in the identical household as silver and gold. As a result of it’s a good conductor of electrical energy, it’s broadly utilized in digital gadgets.

COVID-19: A reputation given to the illness that erupted into an enormous world pandemic in 2020. It first emerged in 2019 and is brought on by a brand new coronavirus generally known as SARS-CoV-2. Signs in individuals can embrace pneumonia, bother respiratory, feeling too drained to stroll quite a lot of steps, fever, complications, low blood-oxygen ranges, blood clots and mind “fog.”

crop: (in agriculture) A kind of plant grown deliberately grown and nurtured by farmers, resembling corn, espresso or tomatoes. Or the time period may apply to the a part of the plant harvested and offered by farmers. 

protection: (in biology) A pure protecting motion taken or chemical response that happens when a species confronts predators or brokers that may hurt it. (adj. defensive)

electrical present: A circulate of electrical cost — electrical energy — often from the motion of negatively charged particles, referred to as electrons.

electrical energy: A circulate of cost, often from the motion of negatively charged particles, referred to as electrons.

engineering: The sector of analysis that makes use of math and science to resolve sensible issues.

expression: (in genetics) The method by which a cell makes use of the knowledge coded in a gene to direct a cell to make a selected protein.

gene: (adj. genetic) A phase of DNA that codes, or holds directions, for a cell’s manufacturing of a protein. Offspring inherit genes from their mother and father. Genes affect how an organism seems to be and behaves.

genetic: Having to do with chromosomes, DNA and the genes contained inside DNA. The sector of science coping with these organic directions is called genetics. Individuals who work on this area are geneticists.

highschool: A designation for grades 9 by way of 12 within the U.S. system of obligatory public training. Excessive-school graduates might apply to high schools for additional, superior training.

immune: (adj.) Having to do with immunity. (v.) Capable of beat back a selected an infection. Alternatively, this time period can be utilized to imply an organism reveals no impacts from publicity to a selected poison or course of. Extra usually, the time period might sign that one thing can’t be harm by a selected drug, illness or chemical.

immune system: The gathering of cells and their responses that assist a plant or animal combat off infections and take care of overseas substances.

infect: (n. an infection) To unfold a illness from one organism to a different. This often includes introducing some form of disease-causing germ to a person.

irritation: (adj. inflammatory) The physique’s response to mobile harm and weight problems; it typically includes swelling, redness, warmth and ache. It is also an underlying characteristic answerable for the event and aggravation of many ailments, particularly coronary heart illness and diabetes.

novel: One thing that’s intelligent or uncommon and new, as in by no means seen earlier than.

on-line: (n.) On the web. (adj.) A time period for what might be discovered or accessed on the web.

PCR: An acronym for polymerase chain response. It is a biochemical course of that repeatedly copies a selected sequence of DNA.

polymerase chain response or PCR: A biochemical course of that repeatedly copies a selected sequence of DNA. A associated, however considerably completely different approach, copies genes expressed by the DNA in a cell. This system is known as reverse transcriptase PCR. Like common PCR, it copies genetic materials in order that different strategies can establish elements of the genes or match them to recognized genes.

protein: A compound produced from a number of lengthy chains of amino acids. Proteins are a vital a part of all dwelling organisms. They type the premise of dwelling cells, muscle and tissues; in addition they do the work within cells. Among the many better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (additionally in blood) that try and combat infections. Medicines often work by latching onto proteins.

vary: The complete extent or distribution of one thing. As an illustration, a plant or animal’s vary is the realm over which it naturally exists.

Regeneron Worldwide Science and Engineering Truthful: (Regeneron ISEF) Initially launched in 1950, this competitors is certainly one of three created (and nonetheless run) by the Society for Science. Annually now, roughly 1,800 highschool college students from greater than 80 nations, areas, and territories are awarded the chance to showcase their unbiased analysis at Regeneron ISEF and to compete for a mean of virtually $5 million in prizes.

salicylic acid: The primary ingredient in a broadly used ache reliever generally known as aspirin. It is a colorless crystalline compound that tends to cut back irritation. It takes its title from Salix, the Latin phrase for willow, a tree whose bark makes this compound. This identical compound will also be derived from a number of different plant sources.

stress: (in biology) An element — resembling uncommon temperatures, actions, moisture or air pollution — that impacts the well being of a species or ecosystem.

system: A community of elements that collectively work to attain some operate. As an illustration, the blood, vessels and coronary heart are main parts of the human physique’s circulatory system. Equally, trains, platforms, tracks, roadway indicators and overpasses are among the many potential parts of a nation’s railway system. System may even be utilized to the processes or concepts which might be a part of some technique or ordered set of procedures for getting a activity accomplished.

tobacco: A plant cultivated for its leaves, which many individuals burn in cigars, cigarettes, and pipes. Tobacco leaves are also generally chewed. The primary energetic drug in tobacco leaves is nicotine, a strong stimulant (and poison).

vaccine: (v. vaccinate) A organic combination that resembles a disease-causing agent. It’s given to assist the physique create immunity to a selected illness. The injections used to manage most vaccines are generally known as vaccinations.

virus: Tiny infectious particles consisting of genetic materials (RNA or DNA) surrounded by protein. Viruses can reproduce solely by injecting their genetic materials into the cells of dwelling creatures. Though scientists often consult with viruses as stay or lifeless, in actual fact many scientists argue that no virus is really alive. It doesn’t eat like animals do, or make its personal meals the way in which crops do. It should hijack the mobile equipment of a dwelling cell so as to survive.

voltage: A power related to an electrical present that’s measured in models generally known as volts. Energy corporations use high-voltage to maneuver electrical energy over lengthy distances.


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